Selected Publications


Wathen, G., J. E. Allgeier, N. Bouwes, M. M. Pollock, D. E. Schindler, C. E. Jordan. 2018. Beaver activity increases habitat complexity and spatial partitioning by steelhead trout. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. DOI: 10.1139/cjfas-2018-0171


Saunders W.C, N. Bouwes, P. McHugh, C. E. Jordan. 2018. A network model for primary production highlights linkages between salmonid populations and autochthonous resources. EcoSphere DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.2131


Nahorniak M, Wheaton J, Volk C, Bailey P, Reimer M, Wall E, Whitehead K and Jordan C. 2018. How do we efficiently generate high-resolution hydraulic models at large numbers of riverine reaches? Computers & Geosciences. 119: 80-91. DOI: 10.1016/j.cageo.2018.07.001.


McHugh P. A., W. C Saunders, N. Bouwes, C. E. Wall, S. Bangen, J. M. Wheaton, M. Nahorniak, J. R. Ruzycki, I. A. Tattam, C. E. Jordan. 2017. Linking models across scales to assess the viability and restoration potential of a threatened population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Middle Fork John Day River, Oregon, USA. Ecological Modelling. 355:24-38


Macfarlane WW, Gilbert JT, Gilbert JD, Saunders WC, Hough-Snee N, Hafen C, Wheaton JM and Bennett SN. 2018. What are the Conditions of Riparian Ecosystems? Identifying Impaired Floodplain Ecosystems across the Western U.S. Using the Riparian Condition Assessment (RCA) Tool. Environmental Management. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-018-1061-2.


Wathen, G., N. Weber, S. Bennett, N. Bouwes, C.E. Jordan. 2017. An assessment of the geographic closure assumption in mark-recapture abundance estimates of anadromous steelhead populations. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 37:951-961


Weber, N., N. Bouwes, M. M. Pollock, C. Volk, J. M. Wheaton, G. Wathen, C. E. Jordan. 2017. Alteration of Stream Temperature by Natural and Artificial Beaver Dams. PLOS One 12(5): e0176313.


Weber N., N. Bouwes, and C. Jordan. 2017. Spatial and temporal variation of macroinvertebrate community abundances and measurement of the food supply of stream salmonids. Journal of Freshwater Ecology. 36(2):364-376.


Wheaton, J.M, N. Bouwes, P. McHugh, C. Saunders, S. Bangen, P. Bailey, M. Nahorniak, E. Wall, C. Jordan. 2017. Upscaling Site-Scale Ecohydraulic Models to Inform Salmonid Population-Level Life Cycle Modelling and Restoration Actions – Lessons from the Columbia River Basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms DOI 10.1002/esp.4137


O´Brien, G., Wheaton, J., Fryirs, K. McHugh, P., Bouwes, N., Brierley, G., Jordan, C. 2017. A geomorphic assessment to inform strategic stream restoration planning in the Middle Fork John Day Watershed, Oregon, USA. Journal of Maps 13(2), 369-381.


Wall, C. E., N. Bouwes, J. M. Wheaton, S. N. Bennett, W. C. Saunders, P. A. McHugh, and C. E. Jordan. 2017. Design and monitoring of woody structures and their benefits to juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a net rate of energy intake model. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 74:727-738.


Macfarlane, WW, Gilbert, JT, Jensen, ML, Gilbert, JD, McHugh, PA, Hough-Snee, N, Wheaton, JM and Bennett, SN.  2016.  Riparian vegetation as an indicator of riparian condition: detecting departures from historic condition across the North American West. Journal of Environmental Management. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.10.054.


Conner, M. M., W. C. Saunders, N. Bouwes, and C. Jordan. 2016. Evaluating impacts using a BACI design, ratios, and a Bayesian approach with a focus on restoration. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 188:555.


Kasprak, A., Hough-Snee, N., Beechie, T., Bouwes, N., Brierley G. J., Camp R., Fryirs K. A., Imaki H., Jensen M. L., O'Brien G., Rosgen D. L., Wheaton J. M. 2016. The blurred line between form and process: a comparison of stream classification frameworks. PLOS ONE http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150293


Bouwes, N., N. Weber, C. E. Jordan, W. C. Saunders, I. A. Tattam, C. Volk, J. M. Wheaton, and M. M. Pollock. 2016. Ecosystem experiment reveals benefits of natural and simulated beaver dams to a threatened population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Scientific Reports 6:28581.


Hough-Snee, N., A. Kasprak, R. K. Rossi, N. Bouwes, B. B. Roper, and J. M. Wheaton. 2016. Hydrogeomorphic and Biotic Drivers of Instream Wood Differ Across Sub-basins of the Columbia River Basin, USA. River Research and Applications 32:1302-1315.


Bangen S, Hensleigh J, McHugh P, and Wheaton JM.  2016.   Error modeling of DEMs from topographic surveys of rivers using Fuzzy Inference Systems.  Water Resources Research. DOI: 10.1002/2015WR018299.


Macfarlane, W. W., J. M. Wheaton, N. Bouwes, M. L. Jensen, J. T. Gilbert, N. Hough-Snee, and J. A. Shivik. 2016. Modeling the Capacity of Riverscapes to Support Beaver Dams. Geomorphology 277:72-99. 10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.11.019.


Wall, C. E., N. Bouwes, J. M. Wheaton, W. C. Saunders, and S. N. Bennett. 2016. Net Rate of Energy Intake Predicts Reach-Level Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Densities in Diverse Basins from a Large Monitoring Program. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 73:1081-1091. 10.1139/cjfas-2015-0290. 


Bouwes, N., S. Bennett, and J. Wheaton. 2016. Adapting Adaptive Management for Testing the Effectiveness of Stream Restoration: An Intensively Monitored Watershed Example. Fisheries 41:84-91.


Bennett, S., G. Pess, N. Bouwes, P. Roni, R. E. Bilby, S. Gallagher, J. Ruzycki, T. Buehrens, K. Krueger, W. Ehinger, J. Anderson, C. Jordan, B. Bowersox, and C. Greene. 2016. Progress and Challenges of Testing the Effectiveness of Stream Restoration in the Pacific Northwest Using Intensively Monitored Watersheds. Fisheries 41:92-103.


Lallement, M., P. Macchi, P. Vigliano, S. Juarez, M. Rechencq, M. Baker, N. Bouwes, and T. Crowl. 2015. Rising from the ashes: Changes in salmonid fish assemblages after 30  months of the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic eruption. The Science of the Total Environment 541:1041-1051.


Wheaton JM, Fryirs K, Brierley G, Bangen S, Bouwes N, and O’Brien G. 2015. Geomorphic Mapping and Taxonomy of Fluvial Landforms. Geomorphology. 248: 273-295.


Conner, M. M., S. N. Bennett, W. C. Saunders, and N. Bouwes. 2015. Comparison of Tributary Survival Estimates of Steelhead using Cormack–Jolly–Seber and Barker Models: Implications for Sampling Efforts and Designs. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 144:34-47.


Bangen, S., J. Wheaton, N. Bouwes, C. Jordan, C. Volk, M. B. Ward. 2014. Crew variability in topographic surveys for monitoring instream fish habitat: A case study from the Columbia River Basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. DOI: 10.1002/esp.3600


Bangen, S., J. Wheaton, N. Bouwes, B. Bouwes, C. Jordan. 2014. A methodological intercomparison of topographic survey techniques for characterizing in-stream habitat. Geomorpholgy 206:343-361.


Weber, N., N. Bouwes, C. Jordan. 2014. A bioenergetics approach to evaluating growth potential of O. mykiss using abundance of drifting invertebrates. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 71:1158-1170 dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0390


Pollock, M., T.J. Beechie, J. Wheaton, C. Jordan, N. Bouwes, N. Weber, C. Volk. 2014. Using Beaver Dams to Restore Incised Stream Ecosystems.  BioScience 64:279-290


Rosenfeld, J., N. Bouwes, C. E. Wall. S. Naman. 2014.   Successes, failures, and opportunities in the practical application of drift-foraging models. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 97:551-574.


Bennett, S.N., R. Al-Chokhachy, B. B. Roper, and P. Budy. 2014. Annual Variation of Spawning Cutthroat Trout in a Small Western USA Stream: A Case Study with Implications for the Conservation of Potamodromous Trout Life History Diversity. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 34(5):1033-1046.


Camp R and Wheaton JM. 2014. Streamlining Field Data Collection With Mobile Apps.  EOS. 95 (49): 453-454. DOI: 10.1002/2014EO490001.


Pollock, M., J. M. Wheaton, N. Bouwes, and C. E. Jordan CE. 2012. Working with Beaver to Restore Salmon Habitat in the Bridge Creek Intensively Monitored Watershed: Design Rationale and Hypotheses. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA, 108 pp. 


Ward, E. J., B. X. Semmens, D. L. Phillips, J. W. Moore, and N. Bouwes. 2011. A quantitative approach to combine sources in stable isotope mixing models. Ecosphere 2(2):art19. doi:10.1890/ES10-00190.1


Bennett, S. N., J. R. Olson, J. L. Kershner, and P. Corbett. 2010. Propagule pressure and stream characteristics influence introgression: cutthroat and rainbow trout in British Columbia. Ecological Applications 20:263-277.


Roper, B. B., J. M. Buffington, S.N. Bennett, S. H. Lanigan, E. Archer, S. T. Downie, J. Faustini, T. W. Hillman, S. Hubler, K. Jones, C. Jordan, P. R. Kaufmann, G. Merritt, C. Moyer, and A. Pleus. 2010. A Comparison of the Performance and Compatibility of Protocols Used by Seven Monitoring Groups to Measure Stream Habitat in the Pacific Northwest. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 30:565-587. 


Kershner, J.L, B.B. Roper, N. Bouwes, R. Henderson, and E. Archer. 2004. An analysis of stream habitat conditions in reference and managed watersheds on some federal lands within the Columbia basin. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 24:1363-1375.


Archer, E.K., B.B. Roper, R.C. Henderson, N. Bouwes, S.C. Mellison, J.L. Kershner.  2002.  Testing common stream sampling methods:  How useful are these techniques for broad-scale, long-term monitoring?  General Technical Report, Ogden, Utah:  U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.


Roper, B.B., J.L. Kershner, E. Archer, R. Henderson, and N. Bouwes. 2002. An evaluation of physical stream habitat attributes used to monitor streams. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 38(6):1637-1646.

Budy, P., G.P. Thiede, N. Bouwes, C. Petrosky, and H. Schaller. 2002.  Evidence linking delayed hydrosystem mortality of Snake River salmon to their earlier hydrosystem experience.  North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22:35-51.

Selected Reports

Hill, A., Bennett, S., Bouwes, B., Shahverdian, S., Wheaton, J., and N. Bouwes. 2019. Panther Creek riverscapes assessment. Prepared for The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department. Fort Hall, Idaho.

Hill, A., Bennett, S., Shahverdian, S., and B. Bouwes. 2019. Panther Creek conceptual restoration plan.  Prepared for The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department. Fort Hall, ID.

Bennett, S., Camp, R., Wheaton, J.M., Bouwes, N., O'Brien, G., Floyd, B. and Drury, T., 2018. Asotin County Conceptual Restoration Plan: Technical Document and Appendices. Prepared for Asotin County Conservation District, Clarkston, Washington.

Bennett, S.N., Camp, R., Wheaton, J., Bouwes, N., O'Brien, G., Floyd, B. and Drury, T., 2018. Asotin County Watershed Assessment: Technical Document and Appendices. Prepared for Asotin County Conservation District, Clarkston, WA.

ISEMP/CHaMP. 2018. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (BPA Project 2003-017-00) and Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program (BPA Project 2011-006-00): Final Technical Report for Bonneville Power Administration. 1280 pp.

ISEMP/CHaMP. 2017. Combined Annual Report for the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program and Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program: 2016. Bonneville Power Administration., Bonneville Power Administration.

ISEMP/CHaMP. 2016. Combined Annual Report for the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program and Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program: 2015. Bonneville Power Administration., Bonneville Power Administration.

ISEMP/CHaMP. 2015. Combined Annual Report for the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program and Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program: 2014. Bonneville Power Administration., Bonneville Power Administration.

Bennett, S. and Camp, R.J., 2015. Asotin Creek Intensively Monitored Watershed: summary of restoration and monitoring 2014 progress report January 26, 2015 prepared for: Recreation and Conservation Office and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Prepared By: Eco Logical Research Inc., Providence, Utah.

Bennett, S.N., Bouwes, N. and Camp, R., 2015. Asotin Creek Intensively Monitored Watershed: updated study plan. Prepared for the Snake River Salmon Recovery Board, Dayton, WA. Prepared by Eco Logical Research Inc. Providence, UT.

Bennett, S.N., Camp, R. and Bouwes, N., 2015. Asotin Creek Intensively Monitored Watershed: Charley Creek ad North Fork Asotin Creek Restoration - Final Design & Implementation Report. April 23, 2015. Prepared For: Snake River Salmon Recovery Board, Dayton, Washington. Prepared by Eco Logical Research Inc., Providence, Utah.

CHaMP. 2015. The Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program: 2013 Third Year Lessons Learned Project Synthesis Report 2011-006-00., Bonneville Power Administration, Bonneville Power Administration.

O'Brien G, Wheaton JM and Bouwes N. 2015. Synthesis & Recommendations from Middle Fork John Day River Styles - Leveraging the River Styles Framework in Tributary Habitat Management for the Columbia River Basin. Fluvial Habitats Center, Utah State University, Prepared for Eco Logical Research and Bonneville Power Administration, Logan, UT, 20 pp. DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3937.3129.

ISEMP. 2014. The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2013. Bonneville Power Administration, Bonneville Power Administration.

ISEMP. 2013. The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: Lessons Learned Synthesis Report 2012 Update. Bonneville Power Administration, Bonneville Power Administration.

Bennett, S.N., Camp, R.J. and Bouwes, N., 2013. Asotin Creek Intensively Monitored Watershed: South Fork Asotin creek 2012 Restoration Implementation. Prepared for Snake River Salmon Recovery Board Dayton, Washington. Prepared by Eco Logical Research Inc., Providence, Utah.

Wheaton, J., S. Bennett, B. Bouwes, and R. Camp. 2012. Asotin Creek Intensively Monitored Watershed: Restoration plan for Charley Creek, North Fork Asotin, and South Fork Asotin Creeks. DRAFT: April 7, 2012. Prepared for the State of Washington Recreation and Conservation Office, Olympia, WA. Prepared by Eco Logical Research Ltd.

Bennett, S., R. Camp, B. Bouwes, and E. Wall. 2012. Southeast Washington Intensively Monitored Watershed Project in Asotin Creek: year 4 pretreatment monitoring summary report. Prepared for the State of Washington Recreation and Conservation Office, Olympia, WA. Prepared by Eco Logical Research Inc.

ISEMP. 2012. The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: Lessons Learned Synthesis Report 2003‐2011. Prepared by ISEMP for the Bonneville Power Administration. Published by Bonneville Power Administration. 159 pp.

Bouwes, N. 2010. The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: John Day Basin Pilot Project, 2009. Prepared for the Bonneville Power Administration’s Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program. 270 pp.

Ward, M.B., P. Nelle and S.M. Walker. (editors). 2011. CHaMP: 2011 Pilot Year Lessons Learned Project Synthesis Report. Prepared for the Bonneville Power Administration by CHaMP. Published by Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR. 95 pp.

Bouwes, N., J. Moberg, N. Weber, B. Bouwes, C. Beasley, S. Bennett, A.C. Hill, C.E. Jordan, R. Miller, P. Nelle, M. Polino, S. Rentmeester, B. Semmens, C. Volk, M.B. Ward, G. Wathen, and J. White. 2011. Scientific protocol for salmonid habitat surveys within the Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program. Prepared by the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program and published by Terraqua, Inc., Wauconda, WA.

Bouwes, N. 2009. The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: John Day Basin Pilot Project, 2009. Prepared for the Bonneville Power Administration’s Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program. 64 pp.

Bennett, S., N. Bouwes, C. E. Wall. 2010 Southeast Washington Intensively Monitored Watershed Project in Asotin Creek: Year Two Pretreatment Monitoring Annual Report. Prepared for: State of Washington, Recreation and Conservation Office Olympia, Washington. 

Nelle, P., N. Bouwes, C. Beasley, M. B. Ward, J. Monahan. 2009. A strategy for implementing an Intensively Monitored Watershed program in the Entiat River subbasin: Prepared for the Bonneville Power Administration’s Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program. 82 pp.

Bennett, S. and N. Bouwes. 2009. Southeast Washington Intensively Monitored Watershed Project: Selection Process and Proposed Experimental and Monitoring Design for Asotin Creek. Prepared for: State of Washington, Recreation and Conservation Office Olympia, Washington.

Nelle, P., C. Beasley, N. Bouwes, C. E. Jordan, S. Rentmeester, C. J. Volk, M. B. Ward, J. White. 2009. Annual Report of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: Fiscal Year 2009.

Nelle, P., M. B. Ward, C. Beasley, N. Bouwes, C. E. Jordan, S. Rentmeester, C. Volk eds. 2008. A Review of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: Prepared for the Bonneville Power Administration’s Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program. 

Nelle, P., M. B. Ward, C. Beasley, N. Bouwes, C. E. Jordan, S. Rentmeester, C. Volk eds. 2007. A Review of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: Prepared for the Bonneville Power Administration’s Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program. 

Schaller, H., P. Wilson, S. Haeseker, C. Petrosky, E. Tinus, T. Dalton, R. Woodin, E. Weber, T. Berggren, J. McCann, S. Rassk, H. Franzoni, P. McHugh, N. Bouwes. 2007. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of PIT-Tagged Spring/Summer Chinook and Steelhead of the Columbia River Basin: Ten-year Retrospective Analyses Report. Prepared for the Bonneville Power Administration.

 Marmorek, D.R., M. Porter and D. Pickard (eds). 2006. Collaborative Systemwide Monitoring and Evaluation Project (CSMEP) – Year 3, Project No. 2003-036-00, Annual Report for FY 2006. Prepared by ESSA Technologies Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. on behalf of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Portland, OR. 126 pp. + appendices.

Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership (PNAMP) & The Collaborative Systemwide Monitoring and Evaluation Project (CSMEP). 2006. Second Annual Research, Monitoring and Evaluation (RME) Workshop for Decision Makers, Program Managers, Scientists and Field Practitioners. 

Nelle, P., M. B. Ward, C. Beasley, N. Bouwes, C. E. Jordan, S. Rentmeester, C. Volk eds. 2006. A Review of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: 2003 – 2006. Prepared for the Bonneville Power Administration’s Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program. 238 pp.

Bouwes, N. ed. 2006. Integrated status and effectiveness monitoring John Day pilot program, 2005 annual report.  Compiled and edited by Eco Logical Research, Inc. Providence, UT for NOAA Fisheries Service and the Bonneville Power Administration. 115 pp. http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/cbd/mathbio/index.cfm

Knight, C. and N. Bouwes. 2005. Shasta River Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Model:  Validation Analysis.  Report compiled by California Trout, Shasta, CA and Eco Logical Research, Inc., Providence, UT for PacificCorps. 29 pp.

Bouwes, N. 2004. Analytical Framework and Study Plan Outline. Report compiled by Eco Logical Research, Providence, UT for the United States Bureau of Reclamation, Portland, OR. 92 pp.

Bouwes, N. 2004. Review of the Bonneville Power Administration’s analysis of the biological impacts of alternative summer spill operations. Report compiled by Eco Logical Research, Providence, UT for the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Portland OR. 17 pp. 

Bouwes, N. 2004. Treatment of dam and reservoir related delayed mortality assumptions in EDT and KlamRAS. Report compiled by Eco Logical Research, Providence, UT for PacificCorps. 14 pp. 

Marmorek, D.R., M. Porter, I.J. Parnell and C. Peters, eds. 2004. Comparative Survival Study Workshop, February 11–13, 2004; Bonneville Hot Springs Resort. Report compiled and edited by ESSA Technologies Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. for Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Vancouver, WA. 137 pp.

Bouwes, N.  2003. Walleye production dynamics in mid-elevation reservoirs in Utah: impacts on forage fish in Starvation and Yuba reservoirs 2002. Annual report to the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, F-47-R, XVI.

Berggren, T., Franzoni H., Basham L., P. Wilson, H. Schaller, C. Petrosky, E. Weber, R. Boyce., Bouwes, N. 2003. Comparative survival study (CSS) of PIT tagged spring/summer chinook 2002 annual report for migration years 1997-2000 mark/recapture activities and bootstrap analysis. BPA Contract #8712702.

Bouwes, N. 2003. Update on the Actions of the Reasonable and Prudent Action of the Biological Opinion. Report compiled by Eco Logical Research prepared for Save Our Wild Salmon, Portland, OR.  30 pp.

Bouwes, N., R. Masonis, N. Cordan. 2002. Review of mainstem passage strategies in the Columbia River System: transportation, spill, and flow augmentation. By Eco Logical Research prepared for Save Our Wild Salmon. 30 pp.

Bouwes, N. 2002. Review of Plum Creek’s Adaptive Management and Monitoring Plan. Report compiled by Eco Logical Research prepared for the Pacific Rivers Council, Eugene, OR.  19 pp.

Bouwes, N., and C. Luecke. 2002. Walleye production dynamics in mid-elevation reservoirs in Utah: impacts on forage fish in starvation and Yuba reservoirs 2001. Annual report to the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, F-47-R, XVI.

Artz, N., N. Bouwes, R. Hill, R. Palmieri, J. Stewart, R. Thompson, J. Seamons. 2002. Environmental Report: Bear Lake Dredging Project. Prepared for: PacifiCorp Salt Lake City, Utah and US Army Corp of Engineers Walla Walla District Walla Walla, Washington.

Bouwes, N. 2002. Update on the Actions of the Reasonable and Prudent Action of the Biological Opinion. Report compiled by Eco Logical Research prepared for Save Our Wild Salmon, Portland, OR.  25 pp.

Berggren, T, N. Bouwes, H. Schaller, P. Wilson, C. Petrosky, E. Weber, S. Scott, R. Boyce. 2002. Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) 2002. Design and Analysis Report, Report to Bonneville Power Administration, Contract No. 00006203, Project No. 199602000, 34 electronic pages (BPA Report DOE/BP-00006203-3).